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History of Public Health in the Region

History of Public Health in the Region

Year/period

Type of event

Event

7000 BCE

Origin

Medical interventions such as dentistry and trepanation are practiced as early as this time.

5000 BCE

Development

Origin of Ayurveda medicine, when it originates as an oral tradition.

2500–1700 BCE

Development

Origin of Siddha medicine.

600 BCE

Development

Ayurveda is branched into internal medicine; paediatrics; psychiatry; surgery; eye, ear, nose, and throat; toxicology; geriatrics; and eugenics/aphrodisiacs.

8th century CE

Development

Texts called Nighantus dealing exclusively with the Materia Medica of Ayurveda are composed. Many of these works help to enlarge the repertoire of medicinal substances by incorporating knowledge of local practitioners and from foreign sources. A few well-known Nighantus are Madanapala Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, Dhanvantari Nighantu and Sodhala Nighantu.

1200s

Development

Unani medicine system is introduced in India via Rome. It integrates with other systems such as Ayurveda and Yoga.

1600s

Development

Introduction of western medicine in India. First medical officers arrive along with the British East India Company's first fleet as ship's surgeons.

1664

Organization (hospital)

The Madras General Hospital is the first hospital opened in India.

1707

Organization (hospital)

The Presidency General Hospital is formed.

1802

Organization (government body)

A Superintendent General of Vaccination in India is appointed after the discovery of the smallpox vaccine.

1817

Crisis

First cholera pandemic originates in the Ganges River Delta.

1823

Organization (medical school)

The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) is founded. It's the oldest to teach European medicine in Asia. Today considered an Institute of National Importance.

1829

Crisis

Second cholera pandemic originates in the Ganges River Delta.

1835

Organization (medical school)

The Calcutta Medical College is established.

1852

Crisis

Third cholera pandemic originates in the Ganges River Delta.

1854

Development

The government of India agrees to supply medicines and instruments to the growing network of minor hospitals and dispensaries. Government Store Depots are established in cities.

1858

Organization (asylum)

Lunate asylums are established for insane persons.

1860

Policy

The Pakistan Penal Code

1860

Organization (medical school)

The Lahore Medical School is established.

1860

Organization (medical school)

KEMU

1863

Crisis

Fourth cholera pandemic originates in the Ganges River Delta.

1869

Development

A Public Health Commissioner and a Statistical Officer are appointed to the Government of India.

1870

Policy

Female Infanticide Prevention Act

1870

Organization (government body)

A central sanitary department is formed.

1873

Policy

The Birth and Death Registration Act is passed.

1880

Policy

An act is passed for the compulsory vaccination of children in municipalities and cantonments. Smallpox is the main target during this period, although vaccinations are also carried out for plague and other diseases.

1881

Crisis

Fifth cholera pandemic originates in India.

1896

Organization (government body)

The Plague Commission is constituted.

1896

Crisis

The Bombay plague epidemic breaks out. It spreads across all of India and kills at least 2 million people.

1897

Policy

The Epidemic Diseases Act is passed. The Governor General of India confers special powers upon local authorities to implement the necessary measures for control of epidemics.

1899

Crisis

Sixth cholera pandemic originates in India.

1912

Organization (government body)

The Government of India sanctions the appointment of Deputy Sanitary Commissioners and Health Officers with the local bodies and releases funds for sanitation.

1912

Policy

The Indian Lunacy Act is passed.

1921

Organization (hospital)

Sir Ganga Ram Hospital is founded.

1925

Organization (medical institution)

The National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences is established. Today listed as an Institute of National Importance.

1926

Organization (hospital)

King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College is founded.

1930

Organization (health training)

The All-India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health is established.

1933

Policy

The Medical Council of India is formed, with the purpose of establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India.

1938

Policy

The Bombay Medical Practitioner's Act is passed. With it comes the first legal recognition and registration for the Indian systems of medicine.

1939

Organization (health training)

The first Rural Health Training Centre is established near Calcutta.

1939

Organization

The Tuberculosis Foundation of India is established.

1940

Policy

The Drugs Act is passed and drugs are made under the control of the government for the first time.

1944

Policy

The Public Health (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance was passed.

1946

Organization (medical school)

Darbhanga Medical College and Hospital is established.

1946

Policy

Foreigners Act was enacted, preventing illegal entry of immigrants

1947

Development

Pakistan created as an independent sovereign state of South Asia

1948

Policy

The Sugar Products Control Order

1949

Organization (government body)

Institute of Public Health was established under the name of Institute of Hygiene and Preventative Medicine

1949

Organization (medical institution)

Fatima Jinnah Medical University was established and enrolled its first batch of 39 students

1951

Policy

Sindh Food Grains Nationalization Board came into act

1952

Policy

Pakistan Armed Forces Nursing Service Act was passed

1954

Policy

Commission on Medical Reforms Set up

1954

Development

Medical Research Fund created

1954

Organization (medical institution)

Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Established

1954

Organization

Pakistan Medical and Dental Council Set up

1957

Policy

The Food grains (Licensing Control) Order was passed

1958

Policy

The Epidemic Diseases Act was passed which enabled to government to take action to take measures against dangerous epidemic diseases

1958

Policy

The Border Areas Foodstuffs (Control) Order was passed

1958

Policy

The Foodstuffs (Futures and Options Prohibition) Order was passed

1958

Policy

The Foodstuffs (Control) Act was passed

1959

Policy

West Pakistan Juvenile Smoking Ordinance was passed

1959

Policy

The Flour Mills (Control) Order was passed

1959

Policy

The Rice (Restrictions on Cultivation) Ordinance was passed

1960

Policy

The Tea (Control of Prices, Distribution and Movement) Ordinance was passed

1960

Policy

Punjab Prohibition of Smoking in Cinema Houses Ordinance was passed putting restrictions on smoking

1960

Policy

The Sugar Distribution Order was passed

1961

Policy

Leave and Holidays Under Road Transport Workers Ordinance was passed

1961

Policy

The Muslim Family Laws Ordinance was passed

1961

Policy

The Medical College Ordinance

1961

Policy

The Sugarcane Control Order

1961

Policy

The Malaria Eradication Board Ordinance

1961

Policy

The Medical Colleges (Governing Bodies) Ordinance

1961

Policy

The Punjab Animal Slaughter Control Act

1962

Policy

Allopathic System (Prevention of Misuse) Ordinance

1962

Policy

The Medical and Dental Council Ordinance

1962

Policy

Pakistan Medical and Dental Council Ordinance

1962

Development

Committee on Medical Reforms Constituted

1962

Development

Rural Health Services started. Experiments on introducing community health workers introduced.

1962

Programme

Maternal and Child Health Programme

1962

Organization

College of Physicians and Surgeons established

1962

Policy

Pakistan College of Physicians and Surgeons Ordinance

1963

Policy

The Punjab Animal Slaughter Control Act

1965

Organization (government body)

National Institute of Health

1965

Policy

The Employees’ Social Security Ordinance

1965

Policy

The Provincial Employees Social Security Ordinance

1965

Policy

The Unani, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic Practitioners Act

1965

Policy

The Malaria Eradication Board (Amendment) Ordinance

1966

Policy

The Cantonments Pure Food Act

1966

Policy

The Medical Diplomas Act

1967

Policy

Wheat, Wheat Atta, maize, Rice and Sugar Distribution Order

1967

Policy

The Foodstuffs Distribution Order

1969

Policy

Customs Act

1969

Policy

Leave and Holidays Under the West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance

1970

Policy

The Medical Colleges Ordinance was passed, providing a constitution for the governing bodies of medical colleges

1970

Programme

Programme for the establishment of an Integrated Rural Health Complex

1970

Policy

The Medical Colleges (Governing Bodies)(Punjab Repeal) Ordinance was passed

1971

Policy

The Foodstuffs (Control) [Punjab Amendment and Validation] Ordinance was passed

1971

Policy

The Workers’ Welfare Fund Ordinance was passed , providing residential accommodation and other facilities where applicable for workers

1971

Policy

The Compulsory Service in the Armed Forces Ordinance was passed

1971

Organization

Institute of Blood Transfusion was established, streamlining the procedure for blood transfusions

1972

Policy

The Sugar (Licensing Control) Order was passed

1972

Policy

The Punjab Sugarcane Control Order was passed

1972

Programme

Tuberculosis Control Programme launched

1972

Policy

The Forest Act was passed, protecting forests from environmental damage

1972

Policy

The Enactment of Children’s Education Workers Children (Education) Order was passed

1973

Organization (government body)

The Punjab Medical College was established

1973

Policy

The Sind Paddy and Rice (Control) Order was passed

1973

Development

Establishment of a Data Generation Cell for Health Planning by the Planning Division

1973

Policy

Leave and Holidays Under the Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) Act was passed

1973

Policy

The Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Industry (Control and Development) Act was passed

1973

Policy

Pakistan Nursing Council Act was passed An Act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to registration and training of nurses, midwives and health visitors.

1974

Policy

Punjab Border Areas Foodstuffs (Control) Order was passed

1975

Programme

Poly Immunization Programme launched

1974

Policy

Punjab Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Development Board Act was passed

1975

Policy

Federal Investigation Agency Act was passed

1975

Policy

The N.W.F.P. Foodstuffs (Control) Order was passed

1975

Policy

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa foodstuffs (Control) Order was passed

1975

Policy

The Malaria Eradication Board (Repeal) Act was passed

1975

Policy

Punjab Economy of Food Order was enacted

1976

Policy

The Pakistan Hotels and Restaurants Act was passed

1976

Policy

The Employees Old-Age Benefits Act was passed

1976

Policy

The Pakistan Plant Quarantine Act was passed

1976

Policy

The Pakistan Hotels and Restaurants Act was passed

1977

Policy

The price Control and prevention of Profiteering and Hoarding Act was passed

1978

Policy

The Wheat Movement (Control) Order was passed

1978

Programme

The Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI) was launched to protect children by immunizing them against childhood tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles

1978

Policy

The Punjab Agriculture Produce Market Ordinance was passed

1978

Organization

Fatimid Foundation was founded

1978

Policy

The Foodstuffs and fertilizers (Cancellation of Authorizations and Dealerships) Ordinance, 1978 (XXI of 1978) was passed

1978

Policy

The Punjab Meat (Control) Order was passed

1979

Policy

Execution of Punishment of Whipping Ordinance was passed

1979

Policy

The Prohibition (Enforcement of Hadd) Order was passed

1979

Development

First workshop on Health Systems Research organized by WHO and PMRC. Planning divisions’ data generation cell transferred under PMRC.

1979

Policy

The Cigarettes (Printing of Warning) Ordinance was passed

1979

Policy

The National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (Administration) Ordinance was passed providing proper administration for the affairs of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases

1979

Policy

The Central Excise Duty on Sugar (Validation) Ordinance was passed

1980

Programme

Accelerated Health Programme launched

1980

Development

Rapid Expansion of Primary Health Care infrastructure. The present three tier system was established

1980

Policy

The National Institute of Health Ordinance was passed providing the legislative backbone for the establishment of the institute itself

1981

Policy

The Punjab Paddy and Rice (Control) Order was passed

1982

Policy

Civil Aviation Ordinance was passed

1982

Policy

The Medical and Dental Degrees Ordinance was passed, introducing regulation into the awarding of degrees to medical and dental professionals

1983

Organization (medical College)

Aga Khan University and Baqai University established

1984

Organization (government body)

Punjab Health Facilities Management Company was established

1988

Organization (government body)

Health Services Academy was established to provide short training courses to in-service public health practitioners & professionals

1988

Organization

Directorate General Nursing Punjab was established as a regulatory body for nurses

1990

Programme

Pakistan Child Survival Programme established

1991

Programme

Social Action Programme established

1992

Policy

Punjab Health Foundation Act was passed providing the legislative backbone for the establishment of the Punjab Health Foundation

1992

Organization

Punjab Health Foundation was set up

1993

Development

Health Sector Reform took place

1994

Policy

Karachi Water Management Act was passed

1995

Policy

Sindh Pure food (Amendment) Act was passed

1995

Policy

Balochistan Pure food (Amendment) Act was passed

1995

Policy

The Islamabad Consumer Protection Act was passed

1996

Policy

Women in Distress and Detention Fund Act was passed

1997

Policy

The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act was passed

1999

Policy

The N.W.F.P. (Supply of Wheat to Flour Mills) Act was passed

2000

Policy

National Highways Safety Ordinance was passed

2001

Policy

Baluchistan foodstuffs Wholesale and Retail Dealers (Cancellation of Authorizations) (Amendment) Ordinance was passed

2001

Policy

Punjab Pure Food (Amendment) Ordinance was passed

2001

Policy

The Local Government Ordinance was passed

2001

Policy

Baluchistan Prohibition of smoking in Cinema Houses (Amendment) Ordinance was passed

2001

Policy

The Cigarette (printing of warning/amendment) Ordinance, 2001 was passed

2001

Policy

Punjab Prohibition of Smoking in Cinema Houses (Amendment) Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

Prohibition of Smoking in Enclosed Places and Protection of Non-smokers Health Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

Punjab Medical and Health Institutions Ordinance was passed as an act to provide for the establishment and management of medical and health intuitions in Punjab

2002

Policy

The Health Services Academy Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

Prohibition of Smoking and Protection of Non-Smokers Health Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

The University of Health Sciences Ordinance was passed, enabling the establishment of the institution

2002

Organization

The University of Health Sciences was established

2002

Policy

Sindh Health Institutions (Establishment and Management) Ordinance was passed

2002

Policy

The ICT Local Government Ordinance was passed

2003

Policy

The Punjab Medical and Health Institutions Act was passed as An Act to provide for the establishment and management of Medical and Health Institutions in the Punjab.

2004

Policy

Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act was passed

2006

Organization (government body)

Rescue 1122 was established as an emergency service serving Punjab

2006

Policy

The HIV and AIDS Prevention, and Treatment Act was passed

2006

Policy

The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act was passed

2006

Policy

The National Disaster Management Ordinance was passed

2007

Organization (government body)

Punjab Forensic Science Agency was established as not just a training facility for CSI and related disciplines but also a laboratory

2007

Policy

The National Disaster Management Ordinance was passed

2007

Policy

Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Ordinance was passed

2009

Policy

The National Disaster Management Ordinance was passed

2009

Organization

Hepatitis Control Program was launched

2010

Policy

The National Disaster Management Act was passed

2010

Policy

The Punjab Healthcare Commission Act was passed allowing for the establishment of the Punjab Healthcare Commission

2010

Organization

The Punjab Healthcare Commission was established

2010

Policy

Protection against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act was passed

2011

Organization

Punjab Information Technology Board was established as the technological backbone of the Punjab government

2011

Policy

Punjab food Safety and Standards Authority Ordinance was passed

2011

Policy

The Epidemic Diseases (Amendment) Act was passed

2012

Programme

Anti-Dengue spraying campaign was launched In 175 Union Councils

2012

Policy

The National Disaster Management (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) (Amendment) was passed

2013

Organization (government body)

Policy and Strategic Planning Unit was established

2013

Policy

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa foodstuffs (Control) (Amendment) Act was passed

2014

Policy

The Mental Health Ordinance was passed

2014

Programme

Healthwatch, a programme launched by the PSPU with collaboration from PITB

2014

Organization

Special Monitoring Unit was established

2015

Development

Bifurcation of the Health Department into the Specialized Healthcare and Medical Education Department and the Primary and Secondary Healthcare department

2015

Organization

Health Information Systems Development Unit was established

2016

Organization (government body)

Punjab Health Initiative Management Company was established

2016

Organization

Project Management Office was set up

2016

Organization

Internal Delivery Unit was set up